Good Writing, Bad Writing ?(好文章,壞文

考研英語作文 時間:2017-10-28 我要投稿
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 Good Writing, Bad Writing ?
          Despite the modern desire to be easy and casual, Americans from time to time give thought to the language they use, to grammar, vocabulary,and official languages. And, as on other issues, they divide into two parties. The larger, which includes everybody from the plain people to the professional writer, takes for granted that there is a right way to use words and construct sentences and many wrong ways. The right way is believed to be clearer,simpler, more logical, and hence more likely to prevent error and confusion. Good writing is easier to read; it offers a pleasant combination of sound and sense.
      Against this majority view is the doctrine of an opposing minority, who make up for their small number by their great learning and their place of authority in the school system and the world of scholarship. They are the professional linguists,who deny that there is such a thing as correctness. The language, they say, is what anybody and everybody speaks.Hence there must be no interference with what they regard as a product of nature. They denounce all attempts at guiding choice.
     Within the profession of linguists there are, of course,fighting factions, but, on this conception of language as a natural growth with which it is criminal to interfere, they are at one. In their arguments one finds appeals to feelings of social equality (all words and forms are equally good) and individual
freedom. These beliefs further suggest that the desire for correctness, the very idea of better or worse in speech, is what is left over from noble and times. To the linguists, change is the only rule to be obeyed. They consider it to be equal with life and accuse their critics of being clock-reverses, enemies of freedom, menaces to"life".

好文章,壞文章?
    盡管現代社會要求簡單、隨意,美國人卻時不時地對他們用的語言、語法、詞匯和官方語言表示關注。而且,像在其他問題上一樣,他們·分為兩派。多數派,包括從一般百姓到專業作家的所有人,都理所當然地認為有一種正確的遣詞造句的方式,也存在很多錯誤的方式。人們相信正確的方式是使文章比較清楚、簡單、更有邏輯性,進而更有可能避免錯誤和含混不清。好文章容易讀;它為讀者提供了聲音和意義的美妙結合。
    與這種占大多數的觀點相對的是持反對意見的少數派的主張,他們淵博的學識以及在教育界和學術界的權威地位彌補了人數少的劣勢。他們是專業的語言學家,他們否
認有正確的寫作方式這回事。他們說任何人或者說每個人說的都是語言,所以我們不應該人為地修改他們認為是自然的產物。他們痛斥所有試圖選擇正確寫作指導的做法。
    在語言學家內部當然也有相互斗爭的派別,但是在“語言是自然發展的,干涉即是犯
罪”這一點上,他們的觀點是一致的。在他們的論點中,人們可以發現社會公平(所有詞語和形式都是一樣的好)和個人自由的感情趨向。這些主張還進一步暗示:尋求正確語言表達的愿望,即話語有好壞之分這個觀念本身是從有貴族貧民之分的那個時代遺留下來的,對語言學家來說,變化是惟一應該遵循的規則。他們把它看成和生命同等重要,并且譴責那些批評他們的人為想要“反轉時鐘”的人,是自由的敵人,是對“生活”的威脅。

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